Effects of time related operating conditions on the effective drying time and drying rate during interval IR drying of squash (Cucurbita moschata)

Authors

  • Chaima Rekik
  • Collette Besombes
  • Wafa Hajji
  • Hela Gliguem
  • Karim Allaf
  • Sihem Bellagha

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46932/sfjdv5n1-026

Keywords:

IIRAD, interval drying, energy saving, intensification, active time, tempering time

Abstract

Infrared drying is increasingly used in the food industry. Infrared energy can improve drying operations and reduce energy consumption compared to convective drying. Often energy is lost during drying in the form of sensible energy, which increases the temperature of the sample and thus causes irreversible damage. Interval drying was applied to infrared by well-defined intervals. The new drying process IIRAD (Interval Infrared Airflow Drying) was implemented using infrared energy coupled with ambient temperature (18 ± 1 ◦C) airflow (1.41 m s − 1) drying and 0.7 W cm− 2 as IR power. In order to estimate the operating time intervals, the calculation of the energy necessary to evaporate a thin layer of water was estimated according to the initial moisture content. The intervals were then defined with 5s of action time (tON) and a tempering time (tOFF) of 2 min. A second set of time related operating conditions was achieved by modulating tON during the drying process: constant tOFF = 2 min while tON varied from (i) 5 s during the first 240 min (till water content reaches W = 4 g H2O/g db), (ii) tON = 4 s during the next 273 min (till W = 2.6 g H2O/ g db), and finally (iii) tON = 2 s till the end of the process. The three modes, continuous, IIRAD type I and II were compared through the drying kinetics, the effective drying time and the energy consumption. The moisture content rapidly decreased during IIRAD type I and II compared to continuous IR drying. The effective drying time was significantly reduced, which allowed a significant energy gain. The moisture migration from the deep layers to the surface of the samples  mainly occurred during the tempering time, which accelerated the water evaporation during the following active times. Calculation and experimental tests showed that the energy required decreased throughout the drying process with water content decrease. Indeed, reducing tON from 5 to 2 s had a positive effect on drying since a higher evaporation rate was noted.  Interval Infrared drying appears to be a promising method to intensify drying and save energy. The intervals must be defined according to the sample nature, the operating conditions and the water content of the sample which varies throughout the process.

References

Beigi, M. (2017). Thin layer drying of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) leaves: dehydration characteristics, rehydration capacity and energy consumption. Heat and Mass Transfer, 53(8), 2711-2718. doi:10.1007/s00231-017-2018-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00231-017-2018-3

Ben Haj Said, L., Najjaa, H., Neffati, M., & Bellagha, S. (2013). Color, Phenolic and Antioxidant Characteristic Changes of Allium Roseum Leaves during Drying. Journal of Food Quality, 36(6), 403-410. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/jfq.12055 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfq.12055

Dongbang, W., & Matthujak, A. (2013). Anchovy Drying Using Infrared Radiation. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 10, 353-360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2013.353.360

Fernando, W., Low, H., & Ahmad, A. L. (2011). The Effect of Infrared on Diffusion Coefficients and Activation Energies in Convective Drying: A Case Study for Banana, Cassava and Pumpkin. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11, 3635-3639. doi:10.3923/jas.2011.3635.3639 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2011.3635.3639

Hajji, W., Bellagha, S., & Allaf, K. (2020). Energy-saving new drying technology: Interval starting accessibility drying (ISAD) used to intensify dehydrofreezing efficiency. Drying Technology, 1-15. doi:10.1080/07373937.2020.1788072 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2020.1788072

Hashimoto, A., & Kameoka, T. (1999). EFFECT OF INFRARED IRRADIATION ON DRYING CHARACTERISTICS OF WET POROUS MATERIALS. Drying Technology, 17(7-8), 1613-1626. doi:10.1080/07373939908917640 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373939908917640

Ismail, O. (2016). Effects of Drying Methods on Drying Characteristic, Energy Consumption and Color of Nectarine. Journal of Thermal Engineering, 2. doi:10.18186/jte.00886 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18186/jte.00886

Kayran, S., & Doymaz, İ. (2017). Infrared Drying and Effective Moisture Diffusivity of Apricot Halves: Influence of Pretreatment and Infrared Power. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 41(2), e12827. doi:10.1111/jfpp.12827 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.12827

Onwude, D. I., Hashim, N., Abdan, K., Janius, R., & Chen, G. (2019). Experimental studies and mathematical simulation of intermittent infrared and convective drying of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.). Food and Bioproducts Processing, 114, 163-174. doi:10.1016/j.fbp.2018.12.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2018.12.006

Ratti, C., & Mujumdar, A. (2006). Infrared Drying. doi:10.1201/9781420017618.ch18 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420017618.ch18

Rekik, C., Besombes, C., Hajji, W., Gliguem, H., Bellagha, S., Mujumdar, A. S., & Allaf, K. (2021). Study of interval infrared Airflow Drying: A case study of butternut (Cucurbita moschata). Lwt, 147. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111486 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111486

Samadi, S. H., & Loghmanieh, I. (2013). EVALUATION OF ENERGY ASPECTS OF APPLE DRYING IN THE HOT-AIR AND INFRARED DRYERS. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/erjsp.2013.30.38

Shi, J., Pan, Z., McHugh, T. H., Wood, D., Hirschberg, E., & Olson, D. (2008). Drying and quality characteristics of fresh and sugar-infused blueberries dried with infrared radiation heating. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 41(10), 1962-1972. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.01.003

Sui, Y., Yang, J., Ye, Q., Li, H., & Wang, H. (2014). Infrared, Convective, and Sequential Infrared and Convective Drying of Wine Grape Pomace. Drying Technology, 32. doi:10.1080/07373937.2013.853670 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07373937.2013.853670

Tetang Fokone, A., Marcel, E., Alexis, K., & Zeghmati, B. (2014). ETUDE EXPERIMENTALE DU SECHAGE DE LA MANGUE EN REGIME INTERMITTENT.

Umesh Hebbar, H., & Rastogi, N. K. (2001). Mass transfer during infrared drying of cashew kernel. Journal of Food Engineering, 47(1), 1-5. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(00)00088-1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0260-8774(00)00088-1

Vishwanathan, K. H., Hebbar, H. U., & Raghavarao, K. S. M. S. (2010). Hot Air Assisted Infrared Drying of Vegetables and Its Quality. Food Science and Technology Research, 16(5), 381-388. doi:10.3136/fstr.16.381 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.16.381

Wanyo, P., Siriamornpun, S., & Meeso, N. (2011). Improvement of quality and antioxidant properties of dried mulberry leaves with combined far-infrared radiation and air convection in Thai tea process. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 89(1), 22-30. doi:10.1016/j.fbp.2010.03.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2010.03.005

Downloads

Published

2024-01-19

How to Cite

Rekik, C., Besombes, C., Hajji, W., Gliguem, H., Allaf, K., & Bellagha, S. (2024). Effects of time related operating conditions on the effective drying time and drying rate during interval IR drying of squash (Cucurbita moschata). South Florida Journal of Development, 5(1), 354–364. https://doi.org/10.46932/sfjdv5n1-026